The word do in English is an auxiliary verb. We also call it a helping verb, because it helps the main verb of the sentence. We use do to form the negative form of ordinary (non-auxiliary) verbs. The negative form is do + not + verb. Of course we generally use the contracted form of do not, which is don’t. The contracted form of does not is doesn’t:
- I like pizza, but I really do not like pasta (or) …I really don’t like pasta
- We live in New York. Our cousin does not live very close to us (or) … doesn’t live very close to us.
- I do not watch a lot of TV because I work until 10pm (or) I don’t watch…
Be careful! We do not use do to form the negative of other auxiliary verbs:
- “I can not play tennis” is ok, but “I do not can play tennis” is not correct.
- “I may not go to the party” is ok, but “I don’t may go to the party” is not correct.
We also use do when we form yes/no questions. The grammar is do + subject + verb:
- Do you like pizza?
- Does Jack have an extra tennis racket?
- Did they meet you at the mall?
Do also has a non-auxiliary use, and there are a lot of collocations with do, especially with some sports. Some examples of collocations are do the dishes (wash the dishes) do laundry (wash dirty clothes) and do homework.
- Lori does yoga on Sundays.
- Akira did kendo in high school.
- Jen cooks, and Joe always does the dishes.
- Make sure you do your homework before watching TV.
It is also possible to use the auxiliary verb do with the non-auxiliary verb do:
- Tom didn’t do his homework and the teacher got angry.
- Did you do anything fun last weekend?
- Don’t do that!
We also use do to replace a verb that was just used:
- I washed the car today. I do it once a month.
- I always exercise in the morning, but today I did it after lunch.
- Jack was singing again in the office. I hate it when he does that.
Lastly, we use do for emphasis before the main verb in a sentence.
- Wow! You do like pizza. You at five slices!
- Oh, don’t worry. Jane does like you. She told me so yesterday.
- I’m sorry, but I do need to go home now. It’s late.
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